Fulminant Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Secondary to Urothelial Neoplasia with Reno-Colic Fistula

Ana Rita Elvas, Bruno Jorge Pereira, Filipa Carrega, Leopoldina Vicente


The emphysematous pyelonephritis is a uncommon and potentially fatal entity. The recognition of this condition enables the early correct management of patients. Diabetes and ureteral obstruction are the main risk factors identified. We present the case of a patient with no relevant risk factors or prior medical history, in which the reason of admission to the emergency department was back pain, eventually evolving into septic shock in the early hours. The imaging tests identified the presence of peri-renal and subcutaneous gas which guided the medical team to the right diagnosis (emphysematous pyelonephritis secondary to fistulized urothelial neoplasia) and the optimal surgical treatment. However, in the post-operative period the patient died, as the clinical condition and laboratory test results performed during the admission were predicting. It should also be mentioned that this same case illustrated a bacteraemia by Sphingomonas Paucimobilis (acquired in the community) with cavitated damage to lungs (probable septic embolism).


Emphysema; Intestinal Fistula; Kidney Neoplasms; Pyelonephritis; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms; Urinary Fistula

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