Stapedo-Vestibular Ankylosis: Retrospective Study of Five Cases in São Tomé e Príncipe
Keywords:Africa, African Continental Ancestry Group, Ankylosis, Otosclerosis, Stapes Surgery
Introduction: Otosclerosis is a common form of conductive hearing loss characterized by abnormal bone remodeling exclusively in the otic capsule. The prevalence of otosclerosis varies in racial populations and is described as being rare in black African populations. In this paper we aim to report five cases of clinical, and surgically confirmed, otosclerosis in black individuals, in São Tomé and Príncipe.
Material and Methods: Since February 2011, Ear, Nose and Throat consultations and surgeries specialty have been carried out at Dr. Ayres de Menezes Hospital in cooperation with the project ‘Health for all’. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of the records of all patients subjected either to stapedectomy or partial stapedectomy until February 2014. Information regarding clinical presentation, audiometric data and surgery reports was recorded.
Results: Five adult patients underwent stapedectomy or partial stapedectomy. All of them presented with normal otoscopy, conductive or mixed hearing loss on audiogram and normal tympanometry with absent stapedial reflexes. None of the patients had signs of infection or history of head trauma. Three cases showed improvement in the air-bone gap after surgery. The other two were lost to follow-up.
Discussion: We documented and surgically confirmed five cases of clinical otosclerosis in this population. A thematic review was carried out and concluded that, despite being described as a rare event in this race, available literature on this topic is not enough to state that there is lower prevalence of otosclerosis amongst the African population.
Conclusion: Even if not common, otosclerosis cannot be disregarded as a possible cause for conductive hearing loss among the population of São Tomé and Principe.
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