Safety and Effectiveness of Cataract Surgery with Simultaneous Intravitreal Anti-VEGF in Patients with Previously Treated Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Manuel Sousa Falcão, Paulo Freitas-Costa, João Nuno Beato, João Pinheiro-Costa, Amândio Rocha-Sousa, Ângela Carneiro, Elisete Maria Brandão, Fernando Falcão-Reis

Abstract


Introduction: To evaluate the safety and impact on visual acuity, retinal and choroidal morphology of simultaneous cataract surgery and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor on patients with visually significant cataracts and previously treated exudative age-related macular degeneration.
Material and Methods: Prospective study, which included 21 eyes of 20 patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration submitted to simultaneous phacoemulsification and intravitreal ranibizumab or bevacizumab. The patients were followed for 12 months after surgery using a pro re nata strategy. Visual acuity, foveal and choroidal thickness changes were evaluated 1, 6 and 12 months post-operatively.
Results: There was a statistically significant increase in mean visual acuity at one (13.4 letters, p < 0.05), six (11.5 letters, p < 0.05) and twelve months (11.3 letters, p < 0.05) without significant changes in retinal or choroidal morphology. At 12 months, 86% of eyes were able to maintain visual acuity improvement. There were no significant differences between the two anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs and no complications developed during follow-up.
Discussion: Simultaneous phacoemulsification and intravitreal anti- vascular endothelial growth factor is safe and allows improvement in visual acuity in patients with visually significant cataracts and exudative age-related macular degeneration. Visual acuity gains were maintained with a pro re nata strategy showing that in this subset of patients, phacoemulsification may be beneficial.
Conclusion: Cataract surgery and simultaneous anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy improves visual acuity in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration.


Keywords


Cataract Extraction; Macular Degeneration; Neovascularization; Phacoemulsification; Treatment Outcome; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

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