Drug induced movement disorders: role of antipsychotic drugs.

Joana Damásio, Serafim Carvalho


This article reviews the current knowledge on drug-induced movement disorders (DIMD) epidemiology, pathophysiology, phenomenology and treatment. This review is justified by its high prevalence in certain medical specialties, the need to include them on movement disorders etiologic differential diagnosis and the potential economical burden. The acronym DIMD refers to a heterogeneous group of neurological syndromes, the most prevalent being parkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia and akathisia. Soon after neuroleptics (D2 dopamine receptor blocking agents) introduction in clinical practice, the first acute dystonic reactions were reported. Later, was recognized that extrapyramidal symptoms could occur in association with their chronic use. Nowadays, several non dopamine receptor blocking drugs and drugs of abuse are recognized as potential inductors of extrapyramidal reactions.

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