Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges in Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Case Report

Sofia Reis, Daniela Ramos, Carolina Cordinhã, Clara Gomes


The atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome comprises a thrombotic microangiopathy resulting from the complement alternate pathway hyperactivation. Its severity requires early diagnosis and treatment. The differential diagnosis includes typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (associated with Shiga toxin) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (associated with deficient activity of ADAMTS13). The only specific treatment currently available for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is eculizumab. We describe the case of a child with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome diagnosed in the context of bloody diarrhea, complicated by neurological involvement that posed several diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.


Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome; Eculizumab

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