Prevalence of Dental Caries in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Treated with Insulin Pump

Rosana Garcia, Ana Coelho, Anabela Paula, Manuel Marques Ferreira, Francisco Caramelo, Luísa Barros, Carla Batista, Miguel Melo, Mário Jorge Silva, Eunice Carrilho

Abstract


Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus and oral health are strictly related on a reciprocal basis, and an increased susceptibility to a wide variety of oral diseases is recognised in these patients. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between the prevalence of dental caries in Type 1 diabetic patients treated with insulin pump and that of non-diabetic patients.
Material and Methods: An observational clinical study of analytical and cross-sectional nature was conducted. The sample consisted of 30 adults with diabetes mellitus treated with insulin pump (selected from the Coimbra Hospital and Universitary Centre) and 30 nondiabetic adults (selected from the ones accompanying the diabetic patients). One dentist evaluated all of the patients between January and May of 2015 in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Coimbra. During the clinical evaluation a case report form adapted to the objectives of the investigation was completed. Data analysis was performed and the significance level was set at 5%.
Results: Diabetic patients showed similar levels on the caries and plaque index to non-diabetic patients. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups as regards oral hygiene habits and frequency of visits to the dentist.
Discussão: Although diabetics’ diet is less abundant in carbohydrates, which provides a smaller exposure to cariogenic food, the regularity of meals can increase the risk of caries since the critical pH for demineralization is reached frequently throughout the day. However, the existence of a chronic condition may determine a high concern for general preventive care, resulting in an overall improvement of their oral health, which could justify the results.
Conclusion: Type 1 diabetic patients treated with insulin pump don’t have a higher prevalence of dental caries.


Keywords


Dental Caries; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Insulin; Insulin Infusion Systems; Oral Health; Prevalence.

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