Congenital Anomalies Detected at Birth in Newborns of Adolescent Women

Leandro Valim dos Reis, Edward Araujo Júnior, Cristina Aparecida Falbo Guazzelli, Mirlene Cecilia Soares Pinho Cernach, Maria Regina Torloni, Antonio Fernandes Moron

Abstract


Introduction: To analyze the prevalence of congenital anomalies detected at birth among children of pregnant adolescents, emphasizing the most common types and the time of diagnosis.
Material and Methods: Retrospective study of type census, in which were analyzed in all newborns, living or dead, weighing more than 500 g of women who gave birth at Hospital São Paulo in a period of six years. The fetuses bearing anomalies were identified prenatally or through postnatal physical examination period, according to the criteria of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations. The results were expressed descriptively using absolute and relative values, the prevalence of anomalies was calculated, as well as the comparison between groups using nonparametric tests.
Results: We analyzed 6 257 pregnancies, of which 577 newborns had some congenital anomaly identified at birth (prevalence 9.2%). Among these 6 257, 907 were adolescents, which showed a 9.9% prevalence of anomalies among their newborns. There was no significant difference between the presence of abnormalities in newborns of adolescents and women with age greater than or equal to 20 years. About 56% of congenital anomalies were diagnosed in the prenatal period. We observed a higher prevalence of defects of neural tube between newborns of adolescents (p = 0.027).
Discussion: We observed high rate of deliveries in adolescents, higher than developed countries. We observed also high frequency of congenital anomalies in newborns, probably because our tertiary reference center. The high prevalence of neural tube defect among young pregnant women could be explained by the absent of acid folic supplementation in non-planned gestations which is typical of adolescents.
Conclusion: The prevalence and time of diagnosis of congenital anomalies showed similar behavior among newborns of teenagers and women with age greater than or equal to 20 years, except for the defects of the neural tube, which were more prevalent among newborns of teenagers.

Keywords


Adolescent; Congenital Abnormalities; Pregnancy.

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